Letters, there are many names in ancient times, such as letters, books, letters, writing materials, ruler of letters…… Now commonly known as the letter. Lu Ji’s “Wen Fu”, a “letter from the perspectives of the foot, spit on the heart surging compliment”. In recent years, the auction market, the price of a letters “rising”, constantly hit the auction record. Whether collectors or ordinary art lovers attention to letters are more and more, more and more strong. The Ming Dynasty Wu Shouzha is being held in Shanghai museum is more numerous “powder”. So, why the letters in the auction market is very high, “still received a letter behind” what is the reason? To solve these problems, this reporter had an exclusive interview with related people, give professional interpretation.
In recent years, fast auction letters
In recent years, the auction on the auction letters wavewave, the emergence of a large number of celebrities and artists rare letters, attracting a large number of history enthusiasts and researchers, calligraphy lovers and collectors to chase, auction has been reached a staggering price”.
In 1994, Xu Beihong calligraphy communication Sapporo 15 album the first auction Hanhai calligraphy, valued at 10-12 yuan, the final liupai. In 2004, still only 3 pass the Xu Beihong one, with 242 thousand yuan to take out letters.
Let a lot of attention to the real collectors auction letters event is in 2009 Chinese Guardian spring auction. 13 through 27 pages of “Chen Duxiu Hu Shi letters” starting to 1 million 500 thousand yuan, to 5 million 544 thousand yuan last shoot, Renmin University of China in cultural relics’ preemptiverights purchase.
In 2011, Xiling auction launched in the autumn auction in the Guo Moruo to the Japanese Wenqiutang letters 230, including the envelope, starting 18 million yuan, and ultimately to 24 million 150 thousand yuan turnover; Beijing Council in 2012 autumn auction, Liang Qichao collection “The Strip No. 54 South Tibet Liang important files” turnover to 67 million 90 thousand yuan, including 146 letters fully executed the final 2 million 645 thousand yuan turnover; Beijing Council 2014 spring auction, “Lv collection special auction, a group of Xu Beihong, Fu Baoshi, Wu Zuoren and other famous artists to Lv Sibai’s letters were sold for high prices; in 2015 the guardian spring auction” ink paper, write letters “concert in Chen Yinque” to “Fu letter turnover to 1 million 150 thousand yuan.
Not only the masters of modern letters so expensive, ancient famous letters is priceless”. The various “handed down from ancient times post”, is also considered to belong to the general nature of the note, sign, so often included in the scope of letters.
Chinese calligraphy history first circulated orderly – Lu ink calligraphy Fateh “calm quote”, is a collection of letters; Qianlong sanxitang “sunny Wang Xizhi Feldberg and Wang Xianzhi” tie “and” mid autumn festival for Wang Xun “Bo Yuan tie” three “, but also note the calligraphy”.
In 2000 the company auction “Huai Su Tie” is a fish, 56 words of text; the 2010 Autumn Auction to 308 million yuan turnover of Wang Xizhi cursive “Christmas tie”, only 41 words, each word with an average of about 7000000 yuan to become the most expensive single Chinese characters in the history of the 2016 spring auction Jiade; turnover of 208 million yuan Zeng Gong “bureau of post”, his surviving rare masterpiece, which belongs to the category of ancient letters.
Has been on the art market has a long-term observation of the young collectors Chen Zhuofei said, in fact, from heat has lasted for more than ten years, although the market has experienced the depth adjustment, but the market is still strong and frequent letters, an upset, that of academic circles began to really care about. In fact, the collection is a collection of celebrity letters to a mature signal.”
If you want to ask, in addition to China, which country most respected Chinese calligraphy and painting, then the answer is bound to be japan. Since the Sui and Tang Dynasties, Japan has always regarded China as a cultural home and studied with an open mind. The traditional Chinese art can be seen in the shadow of Chinese culture. Such as Japan ink painting, is undoubtedly influenced by the Chinese song of ink, but also China Song painting aesthetic taste different, deep Zen, a deserted and tranquil beauty. Japan has now become a popular Japanese calligraphy hobby, five or six Japanese, there is a practice of calligraphy. Perhaps the calligrapher, exhibitions, can work in people, about 1 million of the whole of japan. In the distribution of the “scholar’s four jewels” Tokyo Ginza “hatoi Hall three or four floor gallery, the seasons of the year, a calligrapher exhibition every day.
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The collection of paintings and calligraphy between Japan and China also has a profound origin. Since ancient times, Japan imported a large number of China art, this heat has continued to modern, it is said that the beginning of reform and opening up, Japanese to the acquisition of Beijing Chinese in calligraphy and painting, Liulichang is according to geographical division of the East Street to the West Street to the two of you, they. And ten years, Hedong, Hexi ten years, and now people to Japan, but also the entire art museum collection buyout, plus the various auction, the first half of your placards, the latter half of my placards situation.
In the late Qing Dynasty Royal Garden Mansion, there are always many prominent cases, particularly in Shinobu Somichikoje shendetang for the most, the first in the world for nearly twenty years, almost all orders are out of this, the far-reaching influence on the politics of late Qing Dynasty, Emperor Xuanzong even James Yizhu (emperor Xianfeng) was also determined by the Datong, is at that time, the central political.
As such an important shendetang Qing palace, in accordance with the regulations, must make a Yuxi said, “shendetang treasure”, and then stored in the. After the compilation of the large diaspora Gengshen “light” in treasure tau although no description, but the Qing collection of “Hi map” and “overflow autumn court above the Emperor Daoguang picnicky picture” scrolls are seal “shendetang treasure” India one, with the Indian mutual comparison, the size or layout of seal seal method are all identical.
According to the Beijing poly auction company (micro-blog), the imperial “shendetang treasure jade dragon button is the year of emperor Baoxi shendetang token, the round button Ssangyong, Yilong who carved the two first and two dragon, dragon roar back, four back volumes, longjiaoshan is connected, V in the back printed four, claw stout and strong, clutching the top pad, fine carving, three-dimensional sense of strong. Embossed seal seals for jade chopsticks “shendetang Bao” four words. Because treasure seal with the Xinjiang Hetian jade, its texture is dense and hard, not easy to carve, the Qianlong period of “Sheng knife straight” special carving techniques, continuous cut short pieces of text like a knife, astringent pen calligraphy, showing elegant concise and thick sound weather. With the advanced standard of poetry with ink, surrounded by shallow carved script filled gold “shendetang” Emperor Xuanzong a, inscribed as the light of eleven years time, after Ji Chunyue emperor Mao “seal” Dao “and” light “or India, this light is now in the possession of the the Imperial Palace of Beijing Yuxi renju (micro-blog) Bo Academy for. Confirm. Wearing a yellow silk ribbon button, decoration ribbon and method for fixing the head spike knot is also consistent with the Qing Dynasty large emperor Bao Xi, the palace for the original decoration, it is valuable.
Dragon button is unique to the Qing Dynasty, the emperor seal for use, and is the highest level of a form of the emperor, prohibited the aristocracy and the folk imitation, this concept of Bao Xi, in the form of high noble character. In addition, the essence of material benefit, see this regard Emperor Xuanzong of Bao Xi, the Jade Emperor Qianlong period and the material quality white jade Yuxi is very similar, should Hetian jade Qianlong made by material reserve. However, the volume of more than Yong Zheng, Emperor Qian Long had Yuxi seal, the material of male beauty reflects the very elegant Royal style.
Peking University School of Archaeology and Museology, former dean of the school of Archaeology and Museology, Professor, doctoral tutor, engaged in teaching and research work of Chinese archaeology, the main research direction for the archaeology, Chu culture, archaeology, ancient funeral etiquette culture system, ancient bronzes, ancient currency etc..
At the latest gold to serve as currency in the Warring States period, the Qin Dynasty is still in gold as the currency to the Han Dynasty also use gold as currency. But according to some records of “Han” in Han Dynasty, the wide circulation of gold on the market is not money, but is used by the emperor reward princes and other senior nobles, or princes tribute to the emperor of the spirits gold some is larger; the transaction, or to buy Jue, sin etc.. In a word, the gold in Han Dynasty mainly embodies the function of storage. The archaeological discovery of the Western Han Dynasty is the Golden Circle pie, Linzhi gold, gold also found more than forty pieces of horseshoe. This kind of metal, gold and gold won’t be used as a means of circulation. It can only be a standard sample of emperors and other senior nobles. Gold used in trading is still gold and gold cakes.
“Han” records, the emperor’s only two years, “now more gold Linzhi, delicate shoe, with xierui yan”. In the past, it was generally thought that the bronze and gold hooves began to appear in the first two years (95 BC). But the last century since 70s, one after another in Henan, Fugou Xiangcheng, Jiangsu Xuyi and the golden horseshoe found “Chu Ying yuan” with a gold coin. Therefore, some scholars have pointed out that the horseshoe and unicorn gold appeared during the Warring States period, but only in the period of Emperor Wudi of the Han dynasty. Therefore, this problem still needs to be confirmed by new archaeological materials.
1980 in Shaanxi, the original Xianyang unearthed a precious wuzhu coins, 2.6 cm in diameter, weighs 9 grams, a profile, wearing two stripes, like Zhao Xuan five five baht words written, should belong to the Western Han Dynasty coins. This is the only one of the Western Han Dynasty unearthed five baht coins.
Money in the Wang Mang Era
Mr. Fang Binghai’s box of ancient Ming and Qing Dynasties (the “Oriental Morning Post (micro-blog) – art review” February 6, 2012 “collectors”) of our education, the traditional box, both in terms of function or shape, are creative design “think tank”. There is a collection of exhibitors in 1915 the United States San Francisco Panama Pacific International Exposition wooden square flat box, once opened the two door cover, the wooden pole erected, can form a portable coatrack, this product is particularly urge people recalling various travel make history with the portable multifunctional boxes developed.
In fact, see the coatrack can be transformed into a flat box, it will naturally think of, is the Ming Gao Lian “” “swim out eight discourses on living section” wonderful “folding table”:
Two sheets. A high one foot six inches (Ming Chi than today’s short), three feet two inches wide, two feet four inches, two fold foot way. The table is enlarged and the box is stacked for carrying. The night is the lift, for entertainment. The small table, stacked high above, one foot four inches, a foot two inches long, eight inches wide, with water for the Phoebe, sitting outside the furnace, column incense, bottle arranging, for pure appreciation.
A piece of furniture is actually opened to a table, folded up is a box, just like in the contemporary animated cartoon “Transformers”, has the thorough change shape and the function ability, sounds good is inconceivable. Fortunately, the the Imperial Palace (micro-blog) Museum now has a “Qing Dynasty Qianlong Qianlong leg stationery desk”, the product and records relative, it is not difficult to see the “fold table” secret.
The square table top of the Qianlong life leg stationery desk is made up of two symmetrical panels. Beauty is that each side edge of the table board part is widened, forming length consistent “wall”, the result is the surface together with the wood wall around the fourth also made a half box equivalent. Two of the surface of the side, connected along a metal hinge on the side of wall edge; on the other side, one leg is respectively arranged at the corners, which form the four corners on four legs. The leg of the table through a metal hinge embedded in surface, length of less than half of the longitudinal surface.
As a result, the two panels can be opened by flat hinges and can be buckled relative to each other through the action of the metal hinge. Buckle before first use rotating metal hinge, the four legs down, make it close to the surface to horizontal, legs will easily disappear within the space formed in a side wall of the four round. The words “stack” eight Zun Sheng Jian “to” two fold table “foot living law” clearly refers to this form!
After the table legs are folded into the box, a box with two sides of the board surface and the side wall is formed, and a rectangular case can be stored. “Stack into a box”, that is no doubt that this is also.
If you want the boxes into several tables, is also very easy, the two semi closed box body through a hinge will open on surface to rotate into the same plane angle – of course, don’t forget to put in the box items removed — then took four legs straight, then a a table is formed upside down. Only the table body over its feet, will be accomplished, “the exhibition table into”.
Therefore, “Qing Dynasty Qianlong Qianlong leg stationery desk” is actually a “fold table” embodied in kind. According to Gao Lian said, when the Ming dynasty literati travel, to carry two and a small folding table such a shape change. When starting, the table is closed as a box, which is not only convenient to carry, but also can contain the articles needed for going out. The mountain river picturesque land, then put into the box show table, table as a table for the sitting, drinking tea. Say “on the ground with this lift with the book, for entertainment, is that according to the specific forms of stack table of speech. From material can be seen on the stack, table leg length is limited to desktop lengthwise size, can only form a short leg table, once placed in the ground, the Wai sit picnic can only “on the ground”, sitting on the bench or on the mat, in order to scrape on the height of the table. This table has the advantage of using this lift “, although the height is limited, but it can be lifted to a certain height and all the food and drink, not only convenient diet, and it is civilization.
Another smaller table is a special incense set with incense burners and vases with flowers on it. For Gao Lian, even also must not only have a picnic, small but comfortable dining table, it must be accompanied by a few to have incense, incense thin, flowers with shadow Yi! Today the network popular words to comment, the Ming dynasty literati is playfully Oh! As incense table in the folded into a box when is the vase, incense, and other related artifacts into the box. This mysterious furniture which changes flexibly between several boxes can not only bear the functions of storage and transportation, but also take on the function of furnishings. It is definitely one of the most successful designs in the history of design.
Very striking, “Qianlong queen stack table” in space through custom design, meticulous division and rich, through ingenious arrangements for a set of boxes, shallow trays, put in an incredible amount of life of small appliances, stationery, painting and calligraphy, delicate antiques, like a can conjure magic box. In the details of the “eight Zun Sheng Jian” to all kinds of goods carried by the literati travel, on the table in the Qianlong stack reserve roughly in line with, and ifheavier.
But what about this folding table?
A bottle of garlic, one of the porcelain styles. Other neck slender, shoulder, abdomen foot mouth Shuo, such as garlic, named. Antique bronze firing, the song and Yuan dynasties have been seen. Ming Wanli (1573-1620 years), the prevalence of fire bottle tall blue and white, colorful utensils. The Qing Dynasty shape tends to be light and beautiful, Yong Zheng in the bottle, the coral glaze shiny red garlic famille rose pattern garlic bottle, Qianlong cloisonne enamel produced garlic bottles, exquisite craft, different than Kangxi in the wind, eggplant purple glaze Chi ears garlic bottle there has been considerable development.
The gilt copper filigree enamel paste Panlong garlic bottle, 40 cm high, the bottom of the bottle “Qing Qianlong” inscription. Shape of neat, simple and honest, elegant and handsome ‘see. From the mouth of the bottle to the bottle belly decorated with dragons, clouds, strong and mighty, orders, and other parts of the subtle body scratching claw, scales dense, shiny, symbolizes the authority of the emperor, a breathtaking visual tension. Bottle abdomen auspicious pattern, fine and varied, each has the moral. A symbol of the rich peony, lotus flower pattern, represents longevity, Peach-Shaped Mantou auspicious bird, pray peace auspicious cloud, bats, strange beasts, Ruyi pattern, and advertised Gao elegant book, cymbidium. The combination is orderly, the vision is intense, the density has, the primary and secondary is clear, has the superb painting accomplishment. Another feature of the bottle is colorful, Zhu, red, green and blue, green, purple, yellow, brown, orange, and contrast properly, the depth of natural transition. The use of external filigree craft, this bottle is more noble, royal, The brightness dazzles the eyes
The Lang Shining song offered young figure carving plaque is greatly improved, based on traditional carving, using paintings as sculpture modeled. Painting has a more complex composition, and the level is very rich, there is a cross between each layer, there is a transition, painting is very expressive. At the same time, it also brings great difficulty to engraving. Painting relies on lines and colors to express artistic conception, while sculpture can only reproduce the artistic conception of painting on the level of depth. Sculpture, song young figure rosewood plaque in offering best fine details of objects as possible and try innovative carving techniques, from the simulation to simulate the appearance of texture, let the eagle appearance the slightest completed, flowers and leaves from twigs, feathers, to and from the joint contour to the color texture, and strive to make it.
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